The utilitarian approach, or goal-oriented approach, states that actions are ethically good or bad, depending on their impact. She argues that the most ethical choice is the one that does the greatest good to the greatest number. It is not enough to count the number of good and bad consequences of an option; It is also important to note the type and amount of good it does. After all, some “good things” in life (like health) are more important than others (like a new phone). In law, Valentin Jeutner argued that the term “legal dilemma” could be used as an artistic term to describe a situation in which a legal entity is confronted with two or more legal norms that the legal entity cannot meet at the same time.  The first part answers the first question of the book: “What is a legal dilemma?” It frames the analysis of the book by offering a binding definition of the concept of legal dilemma and its constituent components as an art concept. Once defined, the term is then distinguished from many related concepts (section A), such as legal gaps, disagreements or paradoxes. The first part also deals with various circumstances, including the non-hierarchical nature and fragmentation of international law, which increase the potential frequency with which dilemmas may arise (section B). Finally, this section introduces a distinction between dilemmas that respond to epistemic undecidability and metaphysical undecidability (Section C). Traditionally, international jurisprudence dealing with conflicts of norms has focused on determining how international law can or should resolve them. This book takes a different approach. It focuses on identifying conflicts of norms that the law cannot and should not resolve.
The book offers a new, controversial, but measured argument for interpreting conflicts as intractable as legal dilemmas. Legal dilemmas arise when an act is confronted with a conflict between two or more legal norms that cannot be avoided or resolved. The book, intended for both academics and practitioners, aims to identify the character and consequences of legal dilemmas, distill their legal function into the field of international law, and promote a serious theoretical and practical examination of the conditions that lead to a legal dilemma. The first part provides a definition of legal dilemmas and distinguishes the term from many related concepts. On the basis of this definition, Part II examines contemporary instruments for normative conflict resolution and adaptation of international law in order to identify their limited capacity to resolve certain types of normative conflicts. In the context of the limitations identified in Part II, the third part describes and evaluates the method proposed in the book for dealing with legal dilemmas. Unlike conventional approaches that recommend dealing with intractable conflicts of norms through non-liquette declarations, judicial laws, or a balancing test, the book`s proposal provides that intractable conflicts of norms are addressed in a complementary manner by judicial and sovereign actors. Judicial actors should openly acknowledge intractable conflicts and sovereign actors should decide which standard to meet. The book concludes by arguing that the analysis of various aspects of international law through the concept of legal dilemma improves its conceptual accuracy, facilitates more legitimate decisions, and maintains its dynamic responsiveness. Ethical dilemmas are of particular importance in working life, as they often occur in the workplace. Some companies and professional associations (e.g.
CFA) adhere to their own codes of conduct and ethical standards. Violations of standards may result in disciplinary action. Every person can encounter an ethical dilemma in almost every aspect of their life, including personal, social, and professional aspects. This solution is imperfect insofar as dependence on the grace of others still seems relatively difficult. A second concern is that it structurally encourages decision-makers to favour permissive norms (permits and exemptions) over prescriptive norms (obligations and prohibitions).